美国加州的「沙滩冲浪文化」是怎样的?

【daiyou133的回答(67票)】:

大多数美国人了解加利福尼亚沙滩冲浪文化的方式不外乎两种:通过到访南加州的海滩观看冲浪,或是间接通过收听以冲浪为灵感的音乐或欣赏有关冲浪文化的电影。我自己虽然不是一名冲浪者,但我在夏威夷、圣迭戈/洛杉矶、甚至是尼加拉瓜的海滩冲过浪(或者说尝试过冲浪),我的身边曾围绕着真正的冲浪者,当时我在圣迭戈住了五年。

冲浪并非始自加利福尼亚州。很久以来,它一直是波利尼西亚文化的一部分 – 詹姆斯·库克船长在18世纪访问夏威夷时观察到冲浪,美国作家马克·吐温在19世纪也看到过冲浪。不过,是加利福尼亚州的房地产投资者亨利·亨廷顿在1907年把夏威夷冲浪带到了加利福尼亚州的海岸,当时他聘请了一名年轻的夏威夷人乔治·弗里思在雷东多海滩的海岸上冲浪。从那时起,冲浪发展成为南加州的一个重要的文化特征,特别是通过好莱坞和流行音乐的帮助。哥伦比亚电影公司1959年和1961年的《Gidget》系列电影向美国人介绍了南加州的海滩和冲浪文化,后来,广受欢迎的加利福尼亚州乐队“海滩男孩”对冲浪音乐和文化起到了巨大的推动作用。

冲浪者真正拥有自己的亚文化 – 一些人冲浪纯粹是为了娱乐;对于其他人,这是一种宗教以及他们生活的核心焦点。我知道一些人会在黎明前醒来,只是为了在开始工作或上学前冲浪几小时。真正的冲浪者是“从容不迫的”,因为冲浪教会他们保持耐心并等待下一个波浪。他们穿着冲浪裤(长泳裤)和冲浪衣(防止海水皮疹或冲浪板划伤的紧身衬衣),而在寒冷季节,他们甚至穿着保温潜水服。冲浪者根据波浪的大小和他们的技术水平使用长冲浪板(称为长板)和短冲浪板(称为短板)(我更喜欢长板)。冲浪者甚至有他们自己的手势和词汇 – 他们给“他们的冲浪板打蜡”,在脚踝上绑着冲浪板脚绳,并且在说话时使用像“家伙”(dude)、“呱呱叫的”(righteous)或“可口的波浪”(tasty waves)这样的语言。在靠近加利福尼亚州主要冲浪地点的海滩上,冲浪文化甚至造就了“冲浪食物”。我喜欢在圣迭戈使命海滩(Mission Beach)一家叫做Kono’s的冲浪风格的餐厅吃早餐,在那里我可以吃到一份冲浪者的早餐(丰盛的美式早餐),同时观看冲浪者在清晨的波浪中一显身手。

如果我的文字将激发你去尝试冲浪,首先你必须是一个游泳高手 – 任何人都毫不例外!当你从冲浪板上掉下来时,海洋可能会带来极大的危险。我还强烈建议找教练上一两节冲浪课,在南加州这是很容易做到的。如果冲浪听起来太困难,你可以享受我在海滩上最喜欢做的事,那就是趴板冲浪!或者只是在沙滩上闲逛,观看冲浪者和加利福尼亚州的日落。

Most Americans know about thebeach surf culture in California either through visiting Southern California’sbeaches to watch the surfing, or indirectly through listening tosurfer-inspired music or watching movies about the surfing culture. Whilenot a surfer myself, I have surfed (or attempted to surf) in Hawaii, at beachesin San Diego/Los Angeles and even in Nicaragua, and I have been around realsurfers, when I lived in San Diego for five years.

Surfing didn’t start inCalifornia. It has been a part of Polynesian culture for ages - CaptainJames Cook observed surfing when he visited Hawaii in the 18th Centuryas did American writer Mark Twain in the 19th Century. However, it was a Californian real estate investor, Henry Huntington, whobrought Hawaiian surfing to the California coast in 1907, when he hired GeorgeFreeth, a young Hawaiian, to surf off the coast of Redondo Beach. Eversince then, surfing has developed into an important cultural feature ofSouthern California, especially through the help of Hollywood and popularmusic. Columbia Pictures “Gidget” movies in 1959 and 1961 introducedAmericans to the beach and surf culture in Southern California, and later, thepopular California band, The Beach Boys, gave surfing music and culture a hugeboost.

Surfers truly have their ownsubculture - some surf purely for recreation; for others, it is a religion andcentral focus of their lives. I knew some who would wake up before dawnto just surf for a couple of hours before starting their jobs or school. Real surfers are “laid back” because surfing teaches them to be patient andwait for the next wave. They wear board shorts (long swim trunks) and rashguards (tight shirts that protect against salt water rashes or scratches fromyour surfboard), and in the colder months they even wear wet suits. Surfers use long surf boards (called long boards) and short surf boards (calledshort boards) depending on the size of the waves and their skill level (Iprefer long boards). Surfers even have their own hand gestures andvocabulary - they “wax their surfboards” and wear a surfboard leash on theirankles and say things like “dude” or “righteous” or “tasty waves.” On thebeaches near great California surfing spots, the surf culture even inspires“surf food.” I loved to have breakfast at a surf-inspired restaurantcalled Kono’s in San Diego’s Mission Beach, where I could eat a surfer’sbreakfast (big American-style breakfast) and watch the surfers ride the morningwaves.

If you what I have written inspires to you to try surfing, you must be a very good swimmer first – noexceptions! The ocean can be very dangerous when you fall off yoursurfboard. I also highly recommend taking a surf lesson or two from aninstructor, which is easy to do in Southern California. If surfing soundstoo difficult, you might enjoy my favorite thing to do at the beach, which isboogie boarding! Or just hang out on the beach and watch the surfers andsunset in California.

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